A group of researchers led by Melina Bersten of Kavli IPMU recently presented a model that provides the first characterization of the progenitor for a hydrogen-deficient supernova. Their model predicts that a bright hot star, which is the binary companion to an exploding object, remains after the explosion. To verify their theory, the group secured observation time with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to search for such a remaining star. Their findings, which are reported in the October 2014 issue of The Astronomical Journal, have important implications for the evolution of massive stars.
During the last years, many observational studies have revealed that binaries play an active role in the shaping of non spherical planetary nebulae. We review the different works that lead to the direct or indirect evidence for the presence of binary companions during the Asymptotic Giant Branch, proto-Planetary Nebula and Planetary Nebula phases. We also discuss how these binaries can influence the stellar evolution and possible future directions in the field.
Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ~ 50000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard LTE analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ~ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ~0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ~8.
Authors: Cezary Galan, Joanna Mikolajewska, Kenneth H. Hinkle
We analyze new, high quality multicolor light curves of four overcontact binaries: AK Her, HI Dra, V1128 Tau and V2612 Oph, and determine their orbital and physical parameters using the modeling program of G. Djurasevic and recently published results of radial velocity studies. The achieved precision in absolute masses is between 10 and 20%, and in absolute radii between 5 and 10%. All four systems are W UMa type binaries with bright or dark spots indicative of mass and energy transfer or surface activity. We estimate the distances and the ages of the systems using the luminosities computed through our analysis, and perform an O-C study for V1128 Tau, which reveals a complex period variation that can be interpreted in terms of mass loss/exchange and either the presence of the third body, or the magnetic activity on one of the components. We conclude that further observations of these systems are needed to deepen our understanding of their nature and variability.
Authprs: S. Caliskan, O. Latkovic, G. Djurasevic, I. Ozavci, O. Basturk, A. Cseki, H. V. Senavci, T. Kilicoglu, M. Yilmaz, S. O. Selam