There are many ways to structure a scholarly paper. However, new authors may want to adhere to the most commonly used formats. The paper structure below is that recommended by the American Astronomical Society  (used with permission - original can be found here ).
This should include the following items:
The abstract should summarize concisely the content and conclusions of the paper. The abstract should be a single paragraph of generally not more than 250 words, and the abstract should not contain reference citations. The limitation on the length of the abstract is strictly enforced for the ApJL.
A maximum of six subject keywords – see list  – should be listed, in alphabetical order, after the abstract.
Sections should be numbered with Arabic numerals. Subsections (second-level headings) should be numbered 1.1., 1.2., 1.3., etc. Third- and fourth-level headings should be numbered, e.g., 1.2.1. and 18.104.22.168., respectively. First-level titles (e.g., Section 1) and Appendix titles should all be in capital letters; second-, third-, and fourth-level (e.g., Section 1.1, Section 1.1.1., Section 22.214.171.124.) titles should capitalize only the first letter of each word, except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
Extensive use of footnotes is discouraged. Footnotes should be confined to providing URLs, affiliations, or other truly peripheral information, and should not be used for discussions of or expansions on the text.
Text footnotes should be numbered consecutively, starting with those on the title page.
Footnotes to tables should be designated by lower-case letters, in alphabetical order, starting with "a" in each table (see sample table ). Each table should have its own complete set of footnotes, even if some or all of the footnotes are repeated in later tables.
At the end of the paper individuals, institutions, or funding agencies may be acknowledged. Authors may also acknowledge the referee(s) if they wish. However, it is not appropriate to acknowledge journal staff.