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eJAAVSO

The Variability of Stars—Supernovae Precursors

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Olga A. Tsiopa
Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovo 196140, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract
Many types of stellar variability are connected with mass-loss processes. Strong variable winds ejected by supernova precursors are revealed in early supernova spectra, radio, and X-rays. The geometry of the circumstellar shells around the exploding stars is surprisingly regular at different scales. The formation of shells is a universal process for colliding winds in a series of astrophysical objects, and is detected as a quasi-periodic variability.

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