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The Zurich Classification System of Sunspot Groups

The Zurich Classification System of Sunspot Groups

Contributed by Tom Fleming (FLET)

 

"A" Type: One or more tiny spots that do not demonstrate bi-polarity or exhibit penumbra.

sunspota.jpg
 

"B" Type: Two or more tiny spots that demonstrate bi-polarity but do not exhibit penumbra.

sunspotb.jpg

 

 

 

 

"C" Type: Two or more spots that demonstrate bi-polarity and either the lead spot or trailing spot has a penumbra.

sunspotc.jpg
 

"D" Type: Two or more spots that demonstrate bi-polarity and the lead spot and trailing spots display a penumbra. The "D" Type will occupy 10 degrees or less of Solar longitude.

sunspotd.jpg

 

"E" Type: This group type is similar to the "D" type but spreads between 10 and 15 degrees of Solar longitude.

sunspote.jpg
 

"F" Type: Largest and most extensive of groups, similar to "E" type but will cover in excess of 15 degrees of Solar longitude.

sunspotf.jpg
 

"G" Type: The decayed remnant of "D", "E", and "F" groups. Demonstrates a bi-polar group with penumbras.

"H" Type: The decayed remnant of "C", "D", "E", and "F" groups. A single spot group with penumbra. Must be larger than two and one-half degrees in diameter. The "H" type occasionally is accompanied by a few small spots.

"J" Type: The same as the "H" type but has a diameter less than 2½ degrees.

sunspotg.jpg
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